Explain how emphysema can lead to heart failure.

Week 8 Team A Worksheet

Mr. C.Y., age 71, has had significant emphysema for 6 years. He has reduced his cigarette smoking since mild congestive heart failure was diagnosed (right-sided heart failure; refer to Chapter 12).

He has been admitted to the hospital with a suspected closed pneumothorax and respiratory failure.

1. Describe the pathophysiologic changes in the lungs with emphysema and explain how these affect oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
2. Explain how emphysema can lead to heart failure. What signs and symptoms would you expect to develop in Mr. CY? Classify each as a subjective or objective finding.
3. Explain how a pneumothorax has probably occurred in the presence of emphysema.
4. Explain how a pneumothorax can cause respiratory failure. Describe the pathophysiologic effects on lung function and gas exchange in your answer. Include the criteria for respiratory failure.
5. Explain why caution must be exercised in administering oxygen to Mr. C.Y.
6. The impaired respiration that Mr. CY experiences as a result of his emphysema cause immobility. Immobility can lead to other respiratory complications. Identify 2 of these conditions and describe preventative measures for each.
7. Describe several respiratory therapy interventions that might help Mr. CY and function to return his body to a more homeostatic state.
8. Emphysema, as experienced by this patient, is an obstructive pulmonary disease, which is different than restrictive pulmonary diseases. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology, manifestations, and interventions to help return to homeostasis for obstructive and restrictive respiratory disorders.

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Explain how emphysema can lead to heart failure.

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