How does the patient define health and illness?

Cultural awareness about Ethiopia

HEALTH BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

– How does the patient define health and illness?
– Are there particular methods used to help maintain health, such as hygiene and self-care practices?
– Are there particular methods being used by the patient for the treatment of illness?
What is the attitude toward preventive health measures such as immunizations?
– Are there health topics that the patient may be particularly sensitive to or that are considered taboo?
– What are the attitudes toward mental illness, pain, handicapping conditions, chronic disease, death, and dying?
– Is there a person in the family responsible for various health-related decisions, such as where to go, whom to see, and what advice to follow?

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES AND SPECIAL RITUALS

– Is there a religion that the patient adheres to?
– Is there a significant person that the patient looks to for guidance and support?
Are there any special religious practices or beliefs that may affect health care when the patient is ill or dying?
– Baptism, puberty, marriage, and death?

LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION

– What language is spoken in the home?
– How well does the patient understand English, both spoken and written?
– Are there special signs of demonstrating respect or disrespect?
– Is touch involved in communication?
– Are there culturally appropriate ways to enter and leave situations, including greetings, farewells, and convenient times to make a home visit?

PARENTING STYLES AND ROLE IN THE FAMILY

– Who makes the decisions in the family?
– What is the composition of the family, how many generations are considered to be a single-family and which relatives compose the family unit?
– When the marriage custom is practiced, what is the attitude about separation and divorce?
– What is the role of and attitude toward children in the family?
– When do children need to be disciplined or punished, and how is this done (if physical means are used, in what way?)
– Do the parents demonstrate physical affection toward their children and each other?
– Are there special beliefs and practices surrounding conception, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and child-rearing?

DIETARY PRACTICES

– In general what does the family like to eat?
– Who is responsible for food preparation?
– Are there any foods forbidden by the culture or are some foods a cultural requirement in observance of a rite or ceremony?
– How is food prepared and consumed?
– Are there specific beliefs or preferences concerning food, such as those believed to cause or to cure an illness?

NURSING CONSIDERATIONS FOR THIS CULTURE WHEN HOSPITALIZED

– Describe assessment/interventions that may require modification in the acute care setting.
– What strategies do you suggest to overcome these “barriers”?
– How would the nurse demonstrate cultural sensitivity to a client of this culture?

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How does the patient define health and illness

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